VMWare Workstation: The VMware Authorization Service is not running

This error can occur after the Windows 10 update, either 1511 or 1607.

This issue occurs as part of the upgrade removes the VMWare authorization service. If you click Start->Run and type service.msc you will see the service missing.

Go to Control Panel->Add/Remove Programs and repair your VMWare Workstation installation.

The other option is to update your version. Ensure you have the correct licensing before you do this.